shere26queenown0.com
shere26queenown0.com


 
        . . . .        
- - - https://www.facebook.com/pages/%D9%85%D8%B1%D9%83%D8%B2-%D8%B1%D8%A4%D9%8A%D8%A9-%D9%84%D9%84%D8%BA%D8%A7%D8%AA-%D9%88-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AA%D8%B1%D8%AC%D9%85%D8%A9-%D9%88-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%83%D9%85%D8%A8%D9%8A%D9%88%D8%AA%D8%B1/1401363830094756
» 
17, 2019 8:17 am  ranse

»  --
16, 2019 4:50 pm  ranse

»  .
16, 2019 4:47 pm  ranse

» 
16, 2019 4:45 pm  ranse

» 
16, 2019 4:02 pm  ranse

» 
02, 2015 2:28 pm  heba ukgreen

» 
28, 2015 8:42 pm  So Shereen

»  2010
28, 2015 8:32 pm  So Shereen

»  Hlookup 2010
23, 2015 1:56 pm  So Shereen

10
So Shereen
 
ranse
 
H.A
 
 
magicano
 
 
 
 
FARFORA
 
 
1125 .
CurtisReork .

7995 3811

         | 
 

 Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in the Treatment of Anger: A Meta-Analysis

   
ranse


avatar


: 1400
: 30
: http://shere26queen.own0.com/forum
/ :
: 0
: 81519
: 10
: 25/07/2008


: .. .. .. !!!!!!
:
:

: Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in the Treatment of Anger: A Meta-Analysis     02, 2012 12:22 pm

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in the Treatment of
Anger: A Meta-Analysis

Richard Beck1 an d Ephraim Fernandez12
Anger has come to be recognized as a significant social problem worthy of clinical
Attention and systematic research. In the last two decades cognitive-behavioral therapy
(CBT) has emerged as the most common approach to anger management. The overall
Efficacy of this treatment has not been ascertained and therefore it was decided to
conduct a meta-analysis of this literature. Based on 50 studies incorporating 1640
Subjects it was found that CBT produced a grand mean weighted effect size of .70
Indicating that the average CBT recipient was better off than 76% of untreated subjects
in terms of anger reduction. This effect was statistically significant robust and relatively
Homogeneous across studies. These findings represent a quantitative integration of 20
Years of research into a coherent picture of the efficacy of CBT for anger management.
The results also serve as an impetus for continued research on the treatment of anger.
INTRODUCTION
With violent crime rising among adolescents wide spread familial abuse continuing
racial discord and recent acts of terrorism attention has turned to anger
as a major problem in human relations (Koop & Lundberg 1992; Novello Shosky
& Froehlke1992). Yet anger disorders have been neglected in diagnostic classifications
and treatment programs (Eckhardt & Deffenbacher 1995; Kassinove &
Sukhodolsky 1995) . Increasing references to anger appear in PSYCINFO and other
databases and practitioners are increasingly cognizant of the ramifications of anger
in their clients (Abikoff & Klein 1992; Fernandez & Turk 1993 1995; Koop &
Lundberg 1992) but little is known about how best to treat anger disorders
In a survey of the literature on anger it was found that the vast majority of
anger treatment outcome studies had utilized a cognitive -behavioral approach. The
present study therefore evaluated the efficacy of cognitive -behavioral therapy (CBT)
in the treatment of anger. Instead of a narrative review a meta-analysis was conducted
to quantitatively integrate the results of individual studies employing CBT
for anger control.
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Applied to Anger
Cognitive -behavioral therapy draws upon the rich traditions of behavior modification
and rational-emotive or cognitive therapy (Meichenbaum 1976) paying attention
to social cognition (Dodge 1993) as well as individual constructions of
reality (Mahoney 1993) . It may combine a variety of technique s such as relaxation
cognitive restructuring problem-solving and stress inoculation but rather than being
a mere form of technical eclectism it is theoretically unified by principles of
learning theory and information processing. This approach has elicited much interest
in the treatment of affective disorders such as anxiety and depression as revealed
in recent meta-analyses by Dobson (1989) and Van Balkom (1994) . The status of
CBT for anger however remains unclear.
Yet the last 20 years has seen an accumulation of research on the efficacy of
cognitive -behavioral therapy in the treatment of anger problems. This research has
focused predominantly on Novacos (1975) adaptation of Meichenbaums stress inoculation
training (SIT) initially developed for the treatment of anxiety (Meichenbaum
1975). Using a coping skills approach stress inoculation interventions are
typically structured into three phase s: cognitive preparation skill acquisition and
application training. During this performance -based intervention the client is exposed
to cognitive reframing relaxation training imagery modeling and role -playing
to enhance ability to cope with problem situations.
In SIT for anger problems clients initially identify situational triggers which
precipitate the onset of the anger response . After identifying environmental cues
they rehearse self-statements intended to reframe the situation and facilitate healthy
responses (example s of cognitive self-statements include : Relax dont take things
so personally or I can handle this. It isnt important enough to blow up over
this). The second phases of treatment require s the acquisition of relaxation skills.
The cognitive self-statements can then be coupled with relaxation as clients attempt
after exposure to the trigger to mentally and physically soothe themselves. Finally
in the rehearsal phase clients are exposed to anger-provoking situations during the
session utilizing imagery or role -plays. They practice the cognitive and relaxation
techniques until the mental and physical response s can be achieved automatically
and on cue. This basic outline of SIT can also be supplemented with alternative
Techniques such as problem-solving conflict management and social skills training
as in the social cognitive model of Lochman and colleague s (Lochman & Lenhart
1993).
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the overall effectiveness of
such cognitive -behavioral treatments for anger by using the methodology of meta analysis.
This entailed computing various summary statistics of the strength of treatment
effect as well as inferential tests of the specific research hypothesis that CBT
statistically significantly reduce s anger. Finally these results were converted into
measures of practical significance . This is particularly informative in the current
climate of managed health care where there is a premium on time-limited interventions
like CBT and growing demands for empirical evidence to support the
choice of treatments. This quantitative synthesis of the literature will also familiarize
readers with the main parameters of research on this topic and gene rate considerations
for further research in this area.
Meta-Analysis
Meta-analysis is a quantitative procedure for evaluating treatment effectiveness
by the calculation of effect sizes (Fernandez & Boyle 1996; Glass McGraw &
Smith 1981; Rosenthal 1991). The effect size expresses the magnitude of difference
between treated and untreated subjects. Because effect size is expressed in standard
deviation units it enable s comparisons among studies and the computation of summary
statistics such as the grand average effect size an index of overall effectiveness
for the treatment. Despite its advantages over narrative and quasistatistical methods
of review (Fernandez & Turk 1989) meta-analysis has raised certain concerns which
call for specific solutions (Fernandez & Boyle 1996) . For example it has been argued
that effect sizes obtained from studies of varying quality may not be directly
comparable ; consequently it is now customary to weight effects sizes typically according
to objective criteria such as sample size (which determines statistical
power). Concern has also been raised about possible inflation in effect sizes due
to sampling only published studies which are more likely to report significant results
than are non-published studies (the file -drawer problem); this can be counteracted
to some extent by including unpublished studies and also by conducting tests of
robustness that provide a margin of tolerance for null results (Rosenthal 1995) .
To date the only documented attempt to meta-analyze studies of anger management
was done by Tafrate (1995) . However this review has certain methodological
limitations. First stringent inclusion criteria restricted the number of CBT
studies reviewed to only nine . This small number of studies is unrepre sensitive of
the last 20 years of research on CBT. Tafrate confined his survey to adult sample s
of mostly college students. No doubt students have anger problems too but the
neglect of numerous studies of CBT for oppositional children and adolescents
(populations of primary concern) is problematic. Only three of the studies reviewed
by Tafrate were based on clinical samples thus placing limits on the ecological significance
of results. Unpublished results were ignored and due to the small number
of studies actually reviewed the conclusions reached were probably susceptible to
sampling bias. Finally Tafrate neglected tests of homogeneity tests of significance
or tests of robustness or weighing of effect size s based on any of the design features
of the studies; as emphasized earlier these statistics have now become standard
practice in meta-analytic reviews and they can significantly affect the conclusions
reached.
To improve upon Tafrates (1995) initial review the present study expanded
inclusion criteria incorporated unpublished studies and weighted all effect size s.
As de tailed below the scope of the review was broadened to incorporate diverse
samples receiving a combination of cognitive and behavioral technique s. In this way
more than five time s the number of CBT studies reviewed by Tafrate were meta analyze
here.

_________________
Rozy queen - - -
https://www.facebook.com/Rozyqueen2
    
http://shere26queen.own0.com/forum
ranse


avatar


: 1400
: 30
: http://shere26queen.own0.com/forum
/ :
: 0
: 81519
: 10
: 25/07/2008


: .. .. .. !!!!!!
:
:

: : Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in the Treatment of Anger: A Meta-Analysis     02, 2012 12:23 pm

METHOD
Inclusion Criteria
A computer search of PSYCINFO and Dissertation Abstracts International from
1970 to 1995 was conducted. Using keywords such as anger control anger treatment
and anger management and cross-references among articles a total of 58 relevant
studies of CBT were identified. Eight of these were single -case or small-sample
studies (n < 4) and hence were exclude d. The final sample consisted of 50 nomothetic
studies incorporating a total of 1640 subjects. All studies provided data
on at least one anger-related dependent variable
In terms of the independent variable only cognitive -behavioral treatments for
anger were selected. Studies using purely cognitive or behavioral interventions alone
were not included nor were treatments aimed solely at relaxation. Typically the
study included was one in which some form of cognitive reappraisal or restructuring
was combined with some technique of promoting relaxation. The sample s were
predominantly clinical such as prison inmate s abusive parents abusive spouse s juvenile
delinquents adolescents in residential treatment children with aggressive
classroom behavior and mentally handicapped clients but also included college
students with reported anger problems.
Thirty-five studies used self-reported anger as a dependent variable . Effect
sizes for 28 of the 35 studies were calculate d exclusively from self reports of anger.
The remaining seven studies combine d dependent measure s of anger and aggression
into effect size estimate s. Fifteen studies of school children and adolescents
in placement (either residential or detention facility) referred to anger but only
reported behavioral ratings of aggression. Since aggressive behavior has been the
focus in CBT interventions for children and adolescents aggression ratings served
as the dependent variable for the se studies. For younger populations measure s of
self-reported anger are not always feasible and behavioral ratings of aggression
become a valid alternative just as self-reports of depression and anxiety in children
may be less accessible than the behaviors corresponding to the se mood disturbances.
Calculation of Effect Sizes
Glasss d (effect size) was calculated for each study where means and standard
deviations were available for treatment and control groups (Glass et al. 1981). For
studies utilizing single group pre- versus posttest designs and any other studies
not reporting means and standard deviations effect size was estimate d from t- and
F-value s. Where multiple dependent variable s were reported effect sizes were averaged across variable s to yield one effect size per study thus minimizing non independence
in the data.
Adopting procedures recommended by Rosenthal (1991) each effect size was
weighted by sample size and averaged to yield a grand weighted meand based on
50 studies. Weighting effect size s by sample size is an unbiased and objective procedure
for assigning different weights to studies that vary in statistical power. The
grand weighted mean d was tested for significance (d compared to zero) using a
one -sample t-test and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. A chi square was
also calculated to test for heterogeneity of variance within the set of effect sizes.
The heterogeneity test is the basis for a decision on whether or not to search for
moderator variables; in case of significant heterogeneity it would be necessary to
disaggregate the effect sizes according to the variable s influencing effect size. Finally
to address the file -drawer problem a fail-safe N as recommended by Rosenthal
(1991) was calculated to test for robustness. A robust finding indicate s that
the probability of a Type I error arising from unpublished non significant results
is negligible . As strongly recommended by Rosenthal (1995) a Binomial effect size
display (BESD) was also constructed to provide a more concrete impression of the
relative outcome s in treatment and control groups.
RESULTS
A total of 50 effect size s was obtained for the 50 studies (Table I). Of these
40 utilize d control groups while 10 use d single -group repeated-measures designs.
The sample size and design features for each study are also tabulated.
As summarized in Table II the effect size s ranged from 0.32 to 1.57 SD =
0.43. With only one exception all effect size s were positive in value . The grand
mean unweighted was 0.81. The grand mean weighted effect size was 0.70. This
differed significantly from zero t (49) = 13.28 p < .0001. The 95% confidence intervals
for the mean unweighted effect size range d from 0.69 to 0.93. A stem and
leaf plot is shown in Table III to display batches of effect sizes. As can be seen
the effect sizes approximate d a normal distribution. Most of the effect sizes were
between 0.5 and 0.99 and six effect sizes reached about 1.2 thus making this the
mode . A notable outlier was the one negative value in the data set.
Since any effect size is a standard deviation unit (z-score ) it can be converted
into a percentile by ascertaining the area under the normal curve that is bounded
between that z-score and the tail end of the curve . Thus the grand weighted mean
effect size of 0.70 corresponds to an are a under the curve of 0.5 + 0.258 which
in turn means that the average subject in the CBT treatment condition fared better
than 76% of those not receiving CBT.
To further illustrate the practical importance of these results a binomial effect
size display was added (Table VI). This first entailed conversion of the grand
weighted mean d to r which turned out to be 0.33; as noted in the table half the
value of r was the n added or subtracted from 0.5 revealing that subjects receiving
CBT experienced a 67% treatment success rate whereas control subjects had only
a 33% success rate .

_________________
Rozy queen - - -
https://www.facebook.com/Rozyqueen2
    
http://shere26queen.own0.com/forum
ranse


avatar


: 1400
: 30
: http://shere26queen.own0.com/forum
/ :
: 0
: 81519
: 10
: 25/07/2008


: .. .. .. !!!!!!
:
:

: : Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in the Treatment of Anger: A Meta-Analysis     02, 2012 12:24 pm

DISCUSSION
Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavior Therapy in the Treatment of Anger
Re searchers have increasingly focused their attention on CBT as a treatment
for anger disorders. Over the past 20 years many individual studies have
suggested that CBT is an effective time -limited treatment of anger problems.
Our meta-analysis of 50 nomothetic studies of 1640 subjects revealed a
weighted mean effect size of 0.70 suggestive of mode rate treatment gains.
Since this is in standard deviation units it can be inferred that the average
subject in the CBT condition was better off than 76% of control subjects. More -
over this effect was significantly different from what would be expected under
chance . The grand effect size was also robust enough to be unaffected by unpublished null results and it was relatively homogeneous across studies. Since
the populations investigated consisted largely of abusive parents or spouse s
violent and resistant juvenile offenders inmate s in detention facilities and aggressive school children it is apparent that CBT has general utility in the clinical
management of anger.
These findings imply that the apparent popularity of CBT in the treatment of
anger is justified by its effectiveness in achieving the de sire d treatment goals. The
results are congruent with other meta-analyses documenting the effectiveness of
CBT in the treatment of other affective disturbance s in particular depression
(Dobson 1989) and anxiety (Van Balkom et al. 1994).
At the same time it may be note d that the grand weighted effect size of 0.70
in this review is smaller than Tafrates (1995) reported effect size of 1.00 for CBT
studies (which were labeled as multi component); this is probably because the latte
r consisted of only nine published studies none of which were weighted according
to statistical power. On the other hand by sampling unpublished results reviewing
studies with clinical populations and weighing effect sizes by sample size the present
study may have produced a slight deflation of effect size but one that is probably
more reliable .
Future Considerations
This study was an attempt to summarize and document the progress made
over the last two decades of research on CBT for anger treatment research. The
clinical implications of the meta-analysis are encouraging. Clinicians treating clients
with anger control problems can now substantiate their choice of CBT in the treatment
of anger and expect at least mode rate improvements in their clients. Moreover the pre sent findings may serve as a benchmark against which to evaluate other
psychological and pharmacological treatments for anger. Outcome efficacy aside
future research might also address the cost-effectiveness of the se treatments an
issue of growing interest in the currentera of managed care.
New variations of CBT might also be explored. Deffenbacher and colleagues
have already taken a step in this direction with the development of a package called
cognitive relaxation. On the other hand Lochman and colleagues have emphasized
training people in encoding of social stimuli and problem-solving within a
social context. With additional studies in these areas it is foreseeable that the most
active ingredients of CBT may be identified and integrate d to produce an even
more effective regimen for managing anger.
Another viable frontier of research might be client variables related to treatment
outcome . These may center around self-efficacy locus of control impulsivity
versus reflectivity and a host of traits predisposing individuals to respond to treatment
in select ways. Clarification of these variables may enable the careful matching
of clients to specific treatment regimens.
Finally ecological validity remains a goal for most treatment outcome research.
In anger management well-controlled laboratory studies have revealed encouraging
treatment effects. But the generalizability of these findings to various clinical and
multicultural populations often needs to be established. Ultimately the ability to
predict and control anger as it occurs spontaneously in different groups of people
within their own naturalistic settings is a challenge worth addressing.

_________________
Rozy queen - - -
https://www.facebook.com/Rozyqueen2
    
http://shere26queen.own0.com/forum
ranse


avatar


: 1400
: 30
: http://shere26queen.own0.com/forum
/ :
: 0
: 81519
: 10
: 25/07/2008


: .. .. .. !!!!!!
:
:

: : Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in the Treatment of Anger: A Meta-Analysis     02, 2012 12:26 pm

REFERENCES
Reference s marked with an asterisk indicate studies included in the meta-analysis.
Abikoff H. & Klein R. G. (1992) . Attention-deficit hype ractivity and conduct disorder: Comorbidity
and implications for treatment. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 60 881-892.
*Actor R. G. & During S. M. (1992) . Preliminary results of aggression management training for aggressive
parents. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. 7 410-417.
*Barth R. P. Blythe B. J. Schinke S. P. & Schilling R. F. (1983). Self-control training with maltreating
parents. Child Welfare. 62 313-324.
*Benson B. A. Rice C. J. & Miranti S. V. (1986) . Effects of anger management training with mentally
retarded adults in group treatment. Journal of Counseling and Clinical Psychology 54 728-729.
*Boswell J. W. (1984) . Effects of a multimodal counseling program and of a cognitive -behavioral counseling
program on the anger management skills of pre-adolescent boys within an elementary school
setting (Doctoral dissertation Pennsylvania State University 1984). Dissertation Abstracts International
45 372.
*Cain J. A. (1987) . Anger control: A comparison of cognitive-behavioral and relaxation training with
post-treatment follow-up (Doctoral dissertation United States International University 1987). Dissertation
Abstracts International 48 1804-1805.
Dangle R. F. Deschner J. P. & Rasp R. R. (1989) . Anger control training for adolescents in residential
treatment. Behavior Modification 13 447-458.
Deffenbacher J. L. (1995) . Ideal treatment package for adults with anger disorders. In H. Kassinove
(Ed.) Anger disorders: Definition diagnosis and treatment (pp 151-172) . Washington DC: Taylor &
Francis.
*Deffenbacher J. L. Story D. A. Stark R. S. Hogg J. A. & Brandon A. D. (1987). Cognitive-relaxation
and social skills interventions in the treatment of anger. Journal of Counseling Psychology
34 171-176.
*Deffenbacher J. L. Story D. A. Brandon A. D. Hogg J. A. & Hazaleus S. L. (1988). Cognitive
and cognitive-relaxation treatments of anger. Cognitive Therapy and Research 12 167-184.
*Deffenbacher J. L. Lynch R. S. Oetting E. R. and Kemper C. C. (1996). Anger reduction in early
adolescents. Journal of Counseling Psychology 43 149-157.
*Deffenbacher J. L. McNamara K. Stark R. S. & Sabadell P. M. (1990a) . A comparison of cognitive-
behavioral and process-oriented group counseling for general ange r reduction. Journal of Counseling
and Development 69 167-172.
*Deffenbacher J. L. McNamara K. Stark R. S. & Sabadell P. M. (1990b). A combination of cognitive
relaxation and behavioral coping skills in the reduction of gene ralanger. Journal of College Student
Development 31 351-358.
*Deffenbacher J. L. & Stark R. S. (1992) . Relaxation and cognitive-relaxation treatments of general
anger. Journal of Counseling Psychology 39 158-167.
*Deffenbacher J. L. Thwaites G. A. Wallace T. L. & Oetting E. R. (1994) . Social skills and cognitive-
relaxation approaches to general anger. Journal of Counseling Psychology 41 386-396.
*Deschner J. P. & McNeil J. S. (1986) . Results of anger control training for battering couples. Journal
of Family Violence 1 111-120.
Dobson K. S. (1989). A meta-analysis of the efficacy of cognitive therapy for depression. Journal of
Consulting and Clinical Psvchology 57 414-419.
Dodge K. A. (1993) . Social cognitive mechanisms in the development of conduct disorder and depression.
Annual Review of Psvchology 44 559-584.
Eckhardt C. l. & Deffenbacher J. L. (1995) . Diagnosis of anger disorders. In H. Kassinove (Ed.)
Anger disorders: Definition diagnosis and treatment (pp 27-48) . Washington DC: Taylor & Francis.
*Faulkner K. Stoltenberg C. D. Cogen R. Nolder M. & Shooter E. (1992) . Cognitive-behavioral
group treatment for male spouse abusers. Journal of Family Violence 7 37-55.
*Feindler E. L. Ecton R. B. Kingsley D. & Dubey D.R. (1986) . Group anger control training for
institutionalized psychiatric male adolescents. Behavior Therapy 17 109-123.
*Feindler E. L. Marriott S. A. & Iwata M. (1984) . Group anger-control training for junior high school
delinquents. Cognitive Therapy and Research 8 299-311.
Fernandez E. & Boyle G.J. (1996). Meta-analytic procedure and interpretation of treatment outcome
and test validity for the practitioner psychologist. In M. Smith & V. Sutherland (Eds.) International
review of professional issues in selection and assessment (Vol. 2 pp. 109-125). Chichester UK: Wiley.
Fernandez E. & Turk D. C. (1989) . The utility of cognitive coping strategies for altering pain perception:
A meta-analysis. Pain 38 123-135.
Fernandez E. & Turk D. C. (1993) . Anger in chronic pain patients: A neglected target of attention.
American Pain Society Bulletin 3 5-7.
Fernandez E. & Turk D. C. (1995) . The scope and significance of anger in the experience of chronic
pain. Pain 61 165-175.
*Gaertner G. P. (1984) . A component analysis of stress inoculation training for the development of
anger management skills in adult male offenders (Doctoral dissertation Pennsylvania State University
1983) . Dissertation Abstracts International 44 2359.
Glass G. V. McGaw B. & Smith M. L. (1981) . Meta-analvsis in social research. Beverly Hills CA:
Sage.
*Glick B. & Goldstein A. P. (1987) . Aggression replacement training. Journal of Counseling and Development
65 356-362.
*Hinshaw S. P. Henker B. & Whalen C. K. (1984) . Self-control in hyperactive boys in anger-inducing
situations: Effects of cognitive-behavioral training and of methylphenidate . Jou rnal of Abnormal
Child Psychology 12 55-77.
*Jackson N. C. (1992). Anger control training for adolescents in acute inpatient psychiatric treatment
(Doctoral dissertation Mississippi State University 1991). Dissertation Abstracts International 53
407.
Kassinove H. & Sukhodolsky D. G. (1995) . Anger disorders: Basic science and practice issues. In H.
Kassinove (Ed.) Anger disorders: Definition diagnosis and treatment (pp. 1-26) . Washington DC:
Taylor & Francis.
Kennedy S. M. (1992) . Anger management training with adult prisoners (Doctoral dissertation University
of Ottawa 1990) . Dissertation Abstracts International 52 6087.
Koop C. E. & Lundberg G. D. (1992) . Violence in America: A public health emergency. Journal of
the American Medical Association 267 3075-3076.
*Larson J. D. (1991) . The e ffects of a cognitive-behavioral anger-control intervention on the behavior
of at risk middle school students (Doctoral dissertation Marque tte University 1990) . Dissertation
Abstracts International 52 117.
*Lochman J. E. (1985) . Effects of different treatment lengths in cognitive-behavioral interventions with
aggressive boys. Child Psychiatry and Human Development 16 45-56.
*Lochman J. E. Lampron L. B. Gemmer T. C. Harris S. T. & Wyckoff G. M. (1989) . Teacher
consultation and cognitive-behavioral interventions with aggressive boys. Psychology in the Schools
26 179-188.
*Lochman J. E. Burch P. R. Curry J. F. & Lampron L. B. (1984) . Treatment and generalization
effects of cognitive-behavioral and goal-setting interventions with aggressive boys. Journal of Consulting
and Clinical Psychology 52 915-916.
*Lochman J. E. & Curry J. F. (1986) . Effects of social problem-solving training and self-instruction
training with aggressive boys. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology 15 159-164.
Lochman J. E. & Lenhart L. A. (1993) . Anger coping intervention for aggressive children: conceptual
models and outcome effects. Clinical Psychology Review 13 785-805.
*Lochman J. E. Nelson W. M. & Sims J. P. (1981) . A cognitive-behavioral program for use with
aggressive children. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology 10 146-148.
*Macpherson S. L. (1986) . An investigation of the components of anger management as applied to an
incarcerated population (Doctoral dissertation Pennsylvania State University 1986). Dissertation Abstracts
International 47 1731.
Mahoney M. (1993) . Theoretical developments in the cognitive psychotherapies. Journal of Consulting
and Clinical Psychology 61 187-193.
*Mandel S. M. (1991) . Cognitive behavioral anger control training with aggressive adolescent male s in
a special education high school (Doctoral dissertation Temple University 1991) . Dissertation Abstracts
International 52 2471.
*McDougall C.BoddisS. Dawson K. & Hayes R. (1990). Developments in anger control training.
Issues in Criminological and Legal Psychology 15 39-44.
Meichenbaum D. H. (1975) . Stress inoculation training. New York: Pergamon Press.
Meichenbaum D. H. (1976) . A cognitive-behavior modification approach. In M. Hersen & A. Bellack
(Eds.) Behavioral assessment: A practical handbook. New York: Pergamon Press.
*Moon J. R. & Eisler R. M. (1983). Anger control: An experimental comparison of three behavioral
treatments. Behavior Therapy 14 493-505.
*Moore K. J. & Shannon K. K. (1993). The development of superstitious beliefs in the effectiveness
of treatment of anger: Evidence for the importance of experimental program evaluation in applied
settings. Behavioral Residential Treatment 8 147-161.
*Napolitano S. (1992) . Evaluation of prison anger control training (PACT) : A group treatment program
for incarcerated murderers and violent offenders (Doctoral dissertation California School of Professional Psychology 1991) . Dissertation Abstracts International 53 1071.
*Novaco R. W. (1975) . Anger control: The development and evaluation of an experimental treatment. Lexington
MA: D.C. Health.
Novello A. Shosky S. & Froehlke R. (1992) . From the Surgeon General U.S. Public Health Service:
A medical response to violence. Journal of the American Medical Association 267 3007.
*Olson M. L. (1987). The effect of a cognitive-behavioral anger management program on hostility among
clinically anger clients (Doctoral dissertation Western Conservative Baptist Seminary 1986). Dissertation
Abstracts International 48 885.
*Omizo M. M. Hershberger J. M. & Omizo S. A. (1988) . Teaching children to cope with anger.
Elementary School Guidance and Counseling 22 241-245.
*Pascucci N. J. (1991) . The efficacy of anger control training in reducing chronic aggressive behavior
among emotionally disturbed/learning disabled African-American male pre-adole scents and adolescents
(Doctoral dissertation St. Johns University 1991) . Dissertation Abstracts International 51
3678.
*Rhoade s G. F. (1988) . The effects of stress inoculation and relative dogmatism upon anger management
with forensic inpatients (Doctoral dissertation Western Conservative Baptist Seminary 1982) . Dissertation
Abstracts International 48 3694.
*Rokach A. (1987) . Anger and aggression control training: Replacing attack with interaction. Psychotherapy
24 353-362.
*Rosengren D. B. (1987) . The program of anger control (PACT) : An intervention for angry adolescents
(Doctoral dissertation University of Montana 1986). Dissertation Abstracts International 48 1819.
Rosenthal R. (1991) . Meta-analytic procedures for social research Newbury Park CA: Sage.
Rosenthal R. (1995) . Writing meta-analytic reviews. Psychological Bulletin 118 183-192.
*Saylor C. F. Benson B. & Einhaus L. (1985). Evaluation of an anger management program for
aggressive boys in inpatient treatment. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychotherapy 2 5-15.
*Schlichter J. K. & Horan J. J. (1981) . Effects of stress inoculation on the anger and aggression management
skills of institutionalized juvenile delinquents. Cognitive Therapy and Research 5 359-365.
*Shivrattan J. L. (1988). Social interactional training and incarcerated juvenile delinquents. Canadian
Journal of Criminology 30 145-163.
*Smith L. & Beckner B. M. (1993). An anger management workshop for inmates in a medium security
facility. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 19 103-111.
*Steele H. V. (1991). Social skills and anger control training with juvenile mentally retarded felony
offenders (Doctoral dissertation University of South Florida 1990) . Dissertation Abstracts International
51 5593.
*Stermac L. E. (1986) . Anger control treatment for forensic patients. Journal of In terpersonal Violence
1 446-457.
Tafrate R. C. (1995) . Evaluation of treatment strategies for adult anger disorders. In H. Kassinove
(Ed.) Anger disorders: Definition diagnosis and treatment (pp 109-130) . Washington DC: Taylor &
Francis.
Van Balkom A. J. L. M. van Oppen P. Vermeulen A. W. A. van Dyck R. Nauta M. C. E. & Vorst
H. C. M. (1994). A meta-analysis on the treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder: A comparison
of antidepressants behavior and cognitive therapy. Clinical Psychology Review 14 359-381.
*Whiteman M. Fanshel D. & Grundy J. F. (1987) . Cognitive-behavioral interventions aimed at anger
of parents at risk of child abuse. Social Work 32 469-474.
*Wilcox D. & Dowrick P. W. (1992) . Anger management with adolescents. Residential Treatment for
Children and Youth 9 29-39.
*Wu S. F. (1990) . The efficacy of cognitive-behavioral interventions in facilitating griefwork decreasing
attachment and anger management : A comparative study of post-divorce adjustment groups (Doctoral
dissertation University of South Florida 1989) . Dissertation Abstracts International 51 2080.

_________________
Rozy queen - - -
https://www.facebook.com/Rozyqueen2
    
http://shere26queen.own0.com/forum
 
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in the Treatment of Anger: A Meta-Analysis
    
1 1
 
-
» 

:
shere26queenown0.com ::  -